Practice News

our service

March 2020

I am delighted to announce that our extended contact activity has just been confirmed. Should you wish to make an appointment for yourself or someone else, kindly get in touch with us at your convenience. -Conrad Costa



May 2018

We have updated our privacy policy in accordance with GDPR legislation. Our website does not track you, nor do we collect any information about you whilst you browse our website. We do not covertly make you mine Bitcoin on our behalf nor do we drop any cookies or sell you adverts. We value our own privacy very much and therefore have a lot of respect for your online privacy.

Patient satisfaction Survey

August 2016

Our patient satisfaction survey, which had been ongoing since April, is now closed. We would like to thank all those who participated. We would nonetheless welcome your feedback (whether written, verbal or by email) at any time. Our Friends and Family Test remains ongoing.

New Practice manager

January 2016

We would like to extend a warm welcome to Ms Angelique van Woerkom, who joins us at Castle and Costa as our new Practice Manager. Angelique has many years of experience as a Dental Care Professional and had worked for us frequently as a locum. She is familiar with our working system and is very eager to learn and help us improve our service.

New Associate Dental Surgeon

August 2015

We are pleased to welcome Dr Gavin Gill to our practice as our new associate dental surgeon, following the retirement of Dr Gillian Fellows. Dr Gill has many years of experience in general practice and in teaching hopsitals and will prove to be an asset to our team.

CQC inspection and report

June 2015

We are delighted to announce that Castle and Costa Dental Surgeons have passed their CQC inspection. Following a visit by two inspectors, we were given a clean bill of health - as well as a few suggestions - which we have taken on board. For more information, visit our Resources page.

Dementia Awareness training

November 2014

We extend our congratulations to our dental care professionals and dentists after they were awarded an NVQ level II in dementia awareness training. This will enable us to engage with our patient base better and to improve our understanding of their condition.

Conrad and audrey Costa

March 2013

We are pleased to announce that following the sad demise of Mr Castle, Conrad and Audrey Costa have recently taken over the running of the practice and will strive to maintain and improve the good standard of care that Castle and Costa have been delivering to the non-ambulatory for the past years.

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Dental Decay

Dental decay occurs when a triad of factors are present which overwhelm the body's defence mechanisms. Like all other diseases, decay occurs when viable bacteria find a suitable niche and form plaque, into which dietary sugars diffuse. The bacteria in turn, with time, break down the sugar into an acid, which wears away at tooth enamel just like a normal acid would eat away at a block of marble. The process of decay is reversible, and if suitable conditions are present, the balance is tipped in favour of the tooth remineralising (regaining sufficient mineral content and getting surface hardness again).

What can you do to prevent your teeth decaying?
If any of the three requirements for tooth decay are not met (bacteria in plaque, dietary sugar and a susceptible tooth surface) over a period of time, teeth will not decay. Contrary to popular belief, we do not inherit "weak teeth" except in a very tiny minority of very obvious genetic cases, and most likely, tooth decay is due to a combination of poor brushing and a high intake of dietary sugar.

Removing the bacteria: if you brush your teeth well on a daily basis, to brush away the plaque that harbours bacteria, there will not be any organisms that convert dietary surags into acid. A systematic approach to brushing to make sure all surfaces of the tooth are scrubbed is recommended. However well one might brush, most probably one will not always manage to brush all of the tooth surfaces everytime, and so, the more often one brushes, the better the chance of taking off all of the plaque. Brushing is recommended twice daily; morning and evening, just before bedtime. Brushes however, do not manage to clean in between teeth well enough, and floss is therefore recommended to prevent tooth decay that might start between the teeth.

Cutting down on dietary sugar: this will serve to cut down on the possibility of bacteria converting the sugar into acid that eats away at the tooth surfaces. "Sugar" does not only include sweets and chocolate, but also encompasses all those edible items that contain "hidden" sugars like tomato ketchup, fruit squashes and some fruit juices, some milk flavouring products and snacks such as flans and biscuits. If in doubt, consult the manufacturer's contents label on food products; items like "glucose", glucose syrup" and "sucrose" are sugars that cause decay, as opposed to artificial sweeteners, which do not. Fizzy drinks of the "diet" variety do not contain sugars, but are best avoided in excesses because of their highly acidic nature. Not only is the quantity of sugar in the diet that makes a difference; the frequency of sugar intake is of utmost importace. Hence, frequent snacking on sugary foods is even more harmful than a one-off snack. Snacks in between mealtimes or for one hour before bedtime should be avoided, as should milk given to infants at night or at bedtime. Milk as such does not cause decay, but ferments overnight in the mouth to form sugar, which is then used by bacteria and causes tooth decay.

Fluoride: normally present in toothpastes, fluoride helps the teeth regain any mineral content that is lost by the action of acid produced by bacteria. It gets incorporated into the teeth where any minerals have been lost, and thus strengthens the teeth again. Fluoride supplements like mouthwashes or tabs might be recommended by a dentist if required.

Protecting the tooth surface: it might be beneficial in certain cases to cover over the newly-erupted permanent molars with a special resin that fills up the deep fissures in molars (the area where decay usually starts first). Such fissure sealants that may be recommended by your dentist are very easy to place, in a non-invasive procedure where no drilling is required.

What happens if the tooth decays?
If a tooth decays beyond its own capacity to re-mineralise, a filling will be required. This involves taking off all the decayed part of the tooth, which has been colonised and infected by bacteria, and have the resulting cavity restored with a filling material, namely either silver amalgam or a composite resin (white filling), to restore structure, function, and aesthetics (for front teeth). For fillings, you may opt to have anaesthetic to make the experience less uncomfortable, although some people prefer to not have any anaesthetic. The procedure for the placement of a white, composite-resin placement is shown below:


Step 1: The cavity is prepared and cleaned


Step 2: The cavity is painted with an acid etchant gel


Step 3: The cavity is washed, dried and painted with a special adhesive


Step 4: The adhesive is light-set (cured)


Step 5: The composite resin is built up in increments


Step 6: The increments of composite resin are light-cured


Step 7: The finished restoration is polished